So I think it's probably worth me writing up just exactly how the PulseAudio support in KDE's Phonon library actually works and why using it will give you some nice extra features!
This article follows on from my previous articles here and here. If you've not read them, then it would make sense to give them a quick glance (also as this was composed on my phone while on a flight, please forgive me any silly spelling errors I didn't spot when reviewing it!!)
First of all it's probably worth explaining what happens and what the phonon backend itself needs to be aware of and how it can interoperate with pulse.
So when libphonon is used in an application, a connection to PulseAudio will be attempted. If that connection fails everything will work as currently and nothing much changes. If the connection succeeds, we establish if "module-device-manager" is loaded. This is a module specifically written to implement the routing policy (an ordered priority list of devices for each category of sound produced - e.g. Notifications, Music or Video). If this module is not detected we offer a reduced/cut-down PulseAudio integration where the user will only see a single, virtual "PulseAudio" sound "device" listed in the KDE configuration system's multimedia section. If m-d-m is detected however, users will get the full rich experience. All of the devices ever seen by PulseAudio (I.e. Built in sound cards, PCI devices, USB speakers and headsets, Bluetooth devices and Apple Airtunes devices etc.) will be listed. If the device is not currently available, it will be shown greyed out as expected and you can of course reorder them to suit your own preferences.
So all that is well and good from a user perspective but "how does it work internally?" I hear you scream!
The Nitty Gritty
When m-d-m is used the device preference order is not actually stored in phonon itself as is the case when PulseAudio is not used, it is instead passed across to PulseAudio which takes over responsibility for keeping this priority list up to date. Why do it this way? Well while the preferences stored in KDE work fine for phonon apps they do not cover any non-phonon ones (which still make up the vast majority of sound producing applications on Linux). As someone involved with sound on Linux I've often been asked by confused users why their preferences are not honoured in e.g. Audacious or other non-phonon apps. As PulseAudio is integrated lower down the sound stack than phonon, ensuring it knows your device order preferences also ensures that it can route your audio appropriately according to your preferences for all apps! A clear bonus
Now as you may know phonon has it's own API calls to move streams to specific devices. This is something also handled in PulseAudio so it makes sense to simply wrap up the phonon API around these PA call which is exactly what I do! However, there is a complication. As phonon has pluggable backends, we don't actually speak to pulse directly to do the sound output (our connection to the PulseAudio daemon is only for querying and control purposes) so we don't know which stream is ours when the audio is actually playing. To get around this obscurity introduced by the pluggable backends, we take advantage of a facility in PulseAudio to attach arbitrary metadata to our streams by way of setting special environment variables. When phonon is instructed to start outputting audio, we set both the PulseAudio "media.role" property (this is the equivalent of the Phonon Categories system and we happily have an easy 1:1 mapping) and we generate a GUID for our stream and assign it as the "phonon.streamid" property. Our control connection sees all audio streams played in PulseAudio and can use this streamid to map back the PulseAudio streams to the phonon streams. This then allows us to process the stream move requests! It's a bit of a round about road to get this capability but it is the only way we can skirt around the obscurity provided by a pluggable backend system in a general way (the opaque interfaces provided by e.g. Xine, GStreamer and other backends would not expose this info directly anyway).
"But wait!" I hear those of you paying close attention scream. "Didn't you say above that PulseAudio will do the routing for us according to our preferences? Why not let it do that for phonon streams as well as non-phonon streams and forget about the whole GUID thing?" Well, if truth be told, I did start off doing it this way but it had two major issues. The first was the "Test" button not working properly - it always resulted in the highest priority device being used, no the one the user had selected! Not really ideal and more than a little confusing I'm sure you'll agree! The second problem related to visual feedback. When you reorder your devices or plug in a device of higher priority when sound is currently playing, phonon will visually inform the user of the device change. Handing over wholesale to PulseAudio meant that this feedback was lost. Again this is certainly not what I'd call seamless integration!
So at present the stream will be routed to the correct device by PulseAudio and then Phonon will also issue a move command which should in most cases be a NOOP. Likewise when devices are hotplugged (or unplugged!) PulseAudio will route them correctly and phonon will follow this up with a specific move request which will again end up being a NOOP. While this may seem pointless it does allow for the phonon API to be use properly (as needed by the test button) and give visual feedback)
So what does it mean for a backend? Well the backend needs to be somewhat aware of PulseAudio. Thankfully this is pretty trivial thanks to the PulseSupport class I've written. The backend should ask PulseSupport if pulse is detected if so it should check for and enable it's own PulseAudio output system. If this cannot be fond or activated it can tell PulseSupport that it's a no go and everything should fall back to how things work without any PulseAudio support. There are a couple other bits and bobs that a backend needs to do to work fully but that's the bulk of it.
So I hope I've provided a good and in-depth overview of how this support works. Please keep any comments on topic. If you want to post comments about PA in general, please do so on (and after reading!) this article.
This support is included in the upcoming Mandriva 2010.0 Release which will be hitting the streets very soon.